One of the blazes broke out near Hadassa hospital, just above the village of Ein Kerem, which covers an area of several acres.
Officials evacuated the whole population of Moshav Ora, Aminadav and Even Sapir, three collective villages in the hills of south-west Jerusalem.
The villages are home to more than 2,000 people.
While police were conducting house-to-house searches to ensure no-one was left behind, planes and helicopters flew over the area to flatten the flames with water and fire retardant.
Emergency vehicles had to secure the area around the hospital after many cars went up in flames.
Most roads leading to the area were closed, to allow emergency vehicles to get to the scene quickly.